Glaciers and periodic ice ages are a normal part of Earth's long-term climate dynamics. Alpine glaciers are found in mountainous regions where higher elevations keep air temperatures cold enough for snow to accumulate into layers of ice. Continental glaciers are found in the polar regions: Greenland, the Canadian Arctic and in Antarctica. Though these regions are dry, polar deserts, temperatures are low enough to allow snow to accumulate over centuries and millenia into vast sheets of ice.

The Mechanics of Glaciation

(Earth Rocks! 14:53)

What are glaciers?

All About Glaciers for Kids (Free School 3:59)

Glacier Simulation (PhET)

(not compatible with iPad)

What Causes an Ice Age? (AtlasPro 13:43)

How Ice Ages Happen - The Milankovitch Cycle (6:46)

How do glaciers shape the landscape? (OxfordEd 2:30)

How do glaciers move?
(PBS 7:03)

Global Features of the Last Ice Age

All About Glaciers
(FreeSchool: 3:59)

The Biogeography of the Ice Age
(AtlasPro: 13:58)

The Geography of the Ice Age
(AtlasPro: 15:27)

Rebound: An Earth Story
(AGU 3:18)

The rise and fall of Ice Age Glaciers (NASA: 0:55)

Greenland's Retreating Glaciers (NASA)

What if Antarctica Melted? (AtlasPro: 7:34)

Continental Glaciation in North America

North America - Glacial Maximum

Continental Glacier Geomorphology (Geology Guide: 3:51)

Landforms produced by retreating glaciers

Deglaciation of North America (DigitalAtlasProject: 1:59)

Thickness of the Ice Laurentide Sheet (XKDC)

Ontario: Glacial Lake Algonquin

Glacial Lakes and Ice Retreat, Southern Ontario

Landforms produced by retreating glaciers

The Rise and Fall of the Great Lakes (NFB: 17min)

Animation: Retreat of Glaciers over the Great Lakes

What's so Great and the Great Lakes? (TED-Ed 4:46)

Great Lakes in Profile
Michigan SeaGrant - Fast Facts

Receding glaciers and glacial lakes around the Great Lakes

Features of Continental Glaciation


Alpine Glaciation

Alpine features from Glaciation

Glaciers in the Alps from the last ice age to 2100 (2:39)

(BBC Geography 3:55)

Glacier Simulation (PhET)

(not compatible with iPad)

Alpine Glaciation - U-shaped Valley
(Wikimedia Commons)

Glaciation Teminus (Glacial Geomorphology)