Continental Drift from Pangaea (225mya) to Laurasia and Gondwanaland (200mya) to Today

Ridge Push - Slab Pull

Ring of Fire around the Pacific Ocean

Plate Tectonics Profile or Cross-section through Earth's Crust


Subduction of Oceanic Crust under Continental Crust forming an Oceanic Trench and Volcanic Arc Mountain Chain

Subduction Zone Blank diagram (WiseGeek)

Slice through Andes and South America (ArsTechnica)

Three types of Convergence in one illustration

Island Arc Formation - Subduction: Japan, Indonesia, Aleutians

Subduction of Oceanic Crust under Ocean Crust producing an Island Arc

Island Arc formation by Convergence of to Oceanic Crustal Plates

Subduction of Oceanic Crust creating an Island Arc (BGS-What causes earthquakes?)

Himalaya Mountains Formation - Convergence

Early convergence of India and Asia with Oceanic Crust of Tethys Sea subducting beneath Asia

Convergence of India and Asia forming the Himalayan Mountains 

India-Asia Convergence Map 

Movement of India Plate into Eurasian Plate

Convergence of India and Asia: three illustrations in one

Seafloor Spreading - Divergence

Divergence and Rift Valley Formation leading to Seafloor Spreading

Mid-ocean Divergent Plate Margin showing Seafloor Spreading

Iceland Formation - Divergence

3D View of Eurasian- North American Divergent Plate Boundaries - Iceland

Divergence along mid-Atlantic Ridge through Iceland

Divergent and Transform Plate Margins - Iceland
(MDPI Geosciences)

Great Rift Valley Formation, Africa - Divergence

East African Rift Valley System showing Nubian and Somalia Plates from ResearchGate

The Great Rift Valley from Lebanon in the North, through the Red Sea and Afar Junction to Kenya and Tanzania

Divergence forming a Rift Valley and the Red Sea

Hotspot Island Formation - Hawai'i, Galápagos Islands, Canary Islands

Hotspot creating the Hawaiian Islands

Hawai'ian Hotspot (Smithsonian)

Formation of the Galápagos islands (Britannica)


Canary Islands Formation (28sec)
Original Article

Canary Islands

Formation of the Appalachian Highlands

Formation of the Appalachian Mountains 480mya to 270mya (EARTH Magazine)

Formation of the Appalachian Mountains with captions ( Living Earth)

Formation of the Western Mountains of North America

Formation of the Rocky Mountains (Wiki)

More detail may be found at OpenText-BC - Western Canada during the Mesozoic

How the Rocky Mountains Formed (1:04)

Formation of British Columbia (QMI, 3:29)

Juan de Fuca Plate off Vancouver, BC, Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the USA

Formation of North America 540mya to Today (1:23)