Global Climate Change

It's not a hoax, nor is it fake news. Climate is a measurable phenomenon. We know Global Climate Change is happening. Can we now get over the arguing and actually start doing something about it?! And, as of December 2020, there might just be room for optimism . . .

Scroll down for :
The Carbon Cycle | Evidence of Climate Change | The Greenhouse Effect | Causes of Climate Change | Natural Climate Change | Human-induced (Anthropogenic) Climate Change | Effects of Climate Change | Solutions

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and Earth's surface temperature, 1880-2020 (NOAA)
The CAT Thermometer Tracker

What is climate change?

Climate Change: Earth's giant game of Tetris (TED-Ed 2:48)

Weather, Global Warming and Climate change (NASA)

What is climate change? A really simple guide (BBC)

Climate change in 60 seconds (Royal Society)

Carbon and the Carbon Cycle

Carbon Cycle
from the Geological Society

Carbon Reservoirs
from the Geological Society

Carbon in the Terrestrial Biosphere
from the Geological Society

Carbon in the Ocean
from the Geological Society

Carbonate Compensation Depth
from the Geological Society

Hydrocarbon Formation
from the Geological Society

Global Carbon Budget (ESSD)

Evidence of Climate Change

MinuteEarth: Is Climate change just a lot of Hot Air? (2:14)

NOAAView Interactive World map with extensive ocean, atmosphere and land data over time

PhET: Greenhouse Effect Interactive Simulation

(Not compatible with iPad)

The Greenhouse Effect

NASA: The Greenhouse Effect (2:29)

NASA: Causes

MinuteEarth: How do Greenhouse Gases Work? (3:08)

UCal: The Greenhouse Effect

Causes of Climate Change

There are three types of climate change:

  1. The normal, natural climate change, which has been happening forever, is due to fluctuations in Earth's movement around the Sun, plus its tilt and wobble.

  2. Then, there are short-term perturbations in Earth's natural climate systems caused by sun-spot activity, volcanic eruptions and phenomena like the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) which includes La Niña. However, since climate is a 30-years average of conditions, these aren't truly climate changers, but part of the normal changes we experience here on Earth.

  3. Finally, there is enhanced climate change or anthropogenic climate change – the recent, very rapid warming of Earth due to the influences of people: burning fossil fuels, deforestation, agriculture and trade.

Natural Climate Change

Milankovitch Cycles – Natural Long-term Climate Change (3:18)

Nature: Milankovitch Cycles

Wiki: Milankovitch Cycles

NASA: The Sun's Role in Climate Change

Berkeley Earth: Short-term changes in Earth's temperature due to Volcanic Activity

The Economist: How volcanoes change the climate (1:49)

Effect of Volcanoes on the Atmosphere

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has been moved to Climate Systems

Human-induced (Anthropogenic) Climate Change

Greenhouse gas emissions per capita, 1970-2012 (OurWorldInData)

Per capita greenhouse gas emissions, 2016 (OurWorldInData)

Total greenhouse gas emissions, 2016

Annual total CO2 emissions, by world region to 2018 (OurWorldInData)

MET Office: Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector

from What is Climate Change?

Carbon Emission Inequality by Income, World (VOX - Oxfam)

Share of Cumulative Carbon Emissions by Income, 1990-2015 (Oxfam)

Carbon Emissions Growth by Income, 1990-2015 (Oxfam)

Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions by kg of food (OurWorldInData)

Trade and CO2 Emissions (VOX-EU)

Timeline of Earth's Average Temperature

(see below for embedded view)

Climate Risks: 1.5°C vs 2°C

Temperature Anomalies by Country 1880-2017
(Antti Lipponen 0:54)

Temperature Anomalies from 1900 to 2016
(Antti Lipponen 0:34)

Impacts of Climate Change

NASA: Effects of Climate Change

Social and Economic Impacts of Climate Change (Iberdrola)

Climate Feedbacks
(Univ of Bergen: 8:33)

Nature's ticking time bomb: Tipping Points and Ecosystems (CNN)

Nine tipping points that could be triggered by climate change (CarbonBrief)

Six Global Feedback Loops (CEI)

Global Sources of Feedback Loops (CEI)

Seven Case Studies in Climate Change: Arctic, Methane, Tropical Forest, Wildfires, North American Forests, Ocean Carbon Absorption and Phytoplankton (NASA)

Rising Waters: Out of Balance Ice Sheets (NASA 2:46)

Coastal Flooding Interactive World Map (

Change in Arctic Sea Ice
(= change in albedo)
(Esri 1:54)

Atlas Pro: What if Greenland melted? (8:25)

Coastal Flooding Hotspots (Nature)

Columbia Glacier Retreat
(Google Earth Timelapse)

Is the weather actually becoming more extreme? (TED-Ed 5:21)

NOAA: Extreme event attribution: the climate versus weather blame game

Carbon Brief: Mapping how climate change affects extreme weather around the world

Climate Change: The View from MinuteEarth (2:48)

How the world's climate zones are shifting (YaleE360)

Average Annual Losses (AAL) vs GDP for 20 most-at-risk Cities (ResearchGate)

Projected Wheat Yields, 2050 (IFPRI)

Is the Gulf Stream collapsing? (Have A Think 13:32)

Demystifying Ocean Acidification (CAS: 12:12)

Solutions to Climate Change (still under development)

Ecological Footprint Calculator

(which includes carbon footprint)

Understanding Carbon Offsets

Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA): Six ways nature can protect us from Climate Change (UNEP: 3:23

Coastal Resilience – Natural Solutions

Personal Emission Reductions Recommended by Science Textbooks (IOP)

Most Impactful Personal Emission Reductions (IOP)

Reducing Personal Climate Impacts (VOX - IOP)

What is the climate impact of eating meat and dairy? (CarbonBrief)

World biomes and carbon storage (

Above-ground carbon sequestration rate in forest and savanna biomes (YaleE360 and Nature)

You can scroll through this amazing graphic recounting not only the history of humans on Earth since 22,000y BP, but also the changing temperature.

Best viewed on a laptop or desktop